THE PHILOSOPHICAL-AESTHETIC ASPECTS OF THE CATEGORY OF CREATIVITY IN MUSIC AND PERFORMING ARTS
The theory of musical performance, and in particular of its individual branches, has not yet been fully established. This conclusion exists in musicology and still, despite the high level of musical practice, prominent names of singers, instrumentalists, well-known groups (ensembles, chamber and symphony orchestras, opera theaters, etc.). On the other hand, there is no theoretical work on this problem at all. Obviously, performance theory has to be complex: it combines the issues of musical influence and perception of music with brilliant performing technology (playing instrument, solo singing, ensemble or orchestral playing) and reflects the traditions of culture, philosophical and aesthetic thought of the era.
Performing theory is tested by stage practice – public speaking is the main form of improving technical skill, artistic qualities. The process of translating performing theory into life through public appearances, concert and performing activities of the musician reflects the concept of “creativity” in temporal and spatial dimension, whose artistic perfection is determined by the values of culture, depth, weight of philosophical and aesthetic thought, life experience. At this level, significant questions arise about the correlation between art and science, artistic and scientific thinking, categorical apparatus and research methodology, and so on. Thus, in the textbook “Aesthetics” the authors emphasize: “The problem of artistic creativity has a complex history, which accordingly influenced the theoretical level of its understanding …. This can be explained by the fact that its research began only in the second half of the twentieth century. ”[8, 226]. Subsequently, the authors of the textbook pay attention to the problem of artistic creativity in the context of inter-scientific approach [8, 238-251].
From the history of music, the well-known problem is “composition-performance”, where performance was considered a priority. In 1850, R. Wagner wrote to F. Liszt: “In essence, only the artist is a true artist. All our poetic creativity, all our composer work is just some “I want”, not “I can”: only the performance gives it “I can”, it gives – art ”[5, 22]. Such a situation is possible only in music, given the peculiarities of its existence as a form of art as opposed to painting or literature.
Significant questions of performing creativity were also raised before the author of the study “Conductor Creativity in the Context of an Integrative Approach”. Makarenko . The topic highlights the complexity of the problem in both the historical, theoretical and scientific-methodological aspects of the most respected in the contemporary culture of the profession. The author focuses attention on the philosophical and aesthetic substantiation of the conductor ‘s creativity, which expands the theoretical and methodological basis of the research, and there is a need to apply an integrative approach to solve the tasks in order to understand the phenomenon of orchestral and opera performance. This trend seems promising, relevant in the light of the latest research in contemporary domestic musicology.
The need to study the topic of “creativity” and insufficient scientific level of study of the problem is manifested by the predominance of journalism about the activities of outstanding conductors and memoir literature with reflections and generalizations of their own creative experience. The historical principle of the study is presented as the historiography of the development of conducting art in connection with the evolution of musical instruments, orchestra typology and orchestral thinking of composers. The ensemble nature and the expansion of multi-timber instrument groups in the collective orchestra and opera in the nineteenth century. led to the appearance of a conductor who exhibits sounding power, vertical density and horizontal voice. The artistic and aesthetic and psychological aspects of the conductor’s work are explored in three separate chapters.
In the absence of a coherent performance concept, the conductor’s profession developed empirically – a method of accumulating experience, forming traditions, forms and content of activity. The analysis of the fundamental works and the identification of the substantive load of the conductor activity coincides with the empirical conclusions of modern conductors regarding the technology of conducting (craft sphere), interpretation of works, adjustment of the orchestral balance and the manner of the orchestral play (“singing” by A. Wagester; 11; 145]) as the most important qualitative component of the orchestra’s sound. This approach is observed in the works of E. Linsdorf , K. Kondrashin , L. Ginsburg , E. Anserme, L. Bernstein and others.
The content category of the conductor’s work in this case was more important than the category of form – historically, the search and awareness of the main components, the meaning of the profession. Only in G. von Karayan can we note the conscious attraction to the category of form during the creative life: “It was not a question of reading the score, but of directing the performance of an orchestral or vocal-symphonic work” [2; 10]. In K. Kondrashin is “the performance process in the concert: the unity of the work” [6; 7].