Golubkova V.V: “Retrospective analysis of foreign methods for choral music making”
This article emphasizes the importance of the methodology of musical pedagogy of the twentieth century in the study of musical and aesthetic education of children.
In the field of musical and aesthetic education, extensive experience has been accumulated in many countries of the world. Musical education is an integral part of the general education system both in foreign countries and in our country. Assemblies and conferences devoted to musical upbringing and education of children once every two years are held abroad. At conferences there is an opportunity to become quite voluminous and widely acquainted with the experience of leading educators from different countries. Special magazines and other periodicals devoted to the problems of musical and aesthetic education are published annually all over the world.
Common features of musical education in foreign countries:
– systematic and compulsory for the child, regardless of his abilities;
– the cultivation of free and relaxed self-expression of the individuality of each child;
– development of the emotional sphere.
The methodology of the Swiss composer, conductor and teacher E. Jacques-Dalcroze (1865-1950) is based on the psychological emancipation of the personality, the release of its natural biocurrents, their focus on creative self-expression in motor and instrumental improvisations. He is the creator of a system of rhythmic exercises for the development of musical hearing and memory, attention, rhythmic freedom and plastic.
Active rhythmic and auditory education according to the system of E. Jacques-Dalcroze leads to the rapid development of all basic musical abilities, improving the moral world of the child, the formation of his artistic taste. One of the primary values belongs to rhythmic education. E. Jacques-Dalcroze created a “solfeggio for the body”, where music and movement were organically combined. But all this served a higher purpose – to educate a person with the help of rhythm.
The system of E. Jacques-Dalcroze is aimed not only at rhythmic, but also at active auditory education. The Gamma of Dalcrosis is the singing of various scales, including pentatonic from the same sound, showing with manual signs of the step. Children according to the system of E. Jacques-Dalcroze solfedge from 5-6 years of age.
The psychological principles of E. Jacques-Dalcroze served in many respects as an impetus to the development of the system of the outstanding German composer and teacher K. Orff (1895-1982), Germany.
The first acquaintance of Russian musicians with the educational system of Karl Orff took place only during the “thaw” in December 1967, when, on the initiative of the Leningrad branch of the Union of Soviet Composers, a delegation of the USSR Ministry of Culture visited the K. Orff Institute in Salzburg (Austria). Elements of the K. Orff system began to be successfully used in music classes in kindergartens, secondary schools, solfeggio and rhythmic lessons in kindergarten music schools and art schools.
However, the systematic training of teachers by the method of K. Orff in Russia began only at the end of the twentieth century. Currently, workshops on Orff – pedagogy have gained great popularity. The best representatives of the Orff Institute, professors come to Russia with master classes and pass on their skills to Russian teachers.
The purpose of the pedagogical postulates of K. Orff is to educate the individual, all its creative capabilities. The concept of the K. Orff system is based on the principle of the interaction of arts, on folk archaic. As with Jacques-Dalcroze, the primary role in the K. Orff system belongs to rhythmic education, because K. Orff considered the sense of musical rhythm to be the leading musical ability. “Rhythm cannot be taught – rhythm can be liberated” – the famous aphorism of Karl Orff reveals that every person has a rhythm and its poor quality does not mean absence, but closeness.
The new that K. Orff introduced is elementary musical instruments and folklore archaic as the main musical material. Five volumes of Shulverka by Karl Orff (collections of materials for improvisation), according to the author, are not considered as a finished methodological manual, but as an impulse for pedagogical imagination.
Karl Orff turned to the genres closest to the child’s psyche: a game and a fairy tale, and the theater interpreted it as a reincarnation game. During classes, the abundance of rhythm-motor and speech improvisations led to a strong emotional experience, improvement of speech and musical performances. Moreover, the development of speech, as the most important component of thinking, occurred not only due to the penetration of the verbal meaning of the word, but also its clear pronunciation, musical intonation and correlation with movement.
Musical education, according to Orff, should not be limited to the development of hearing, rhythm, listening to music, learning to sing or play musical instruments. The task of musical education is to stimulate creative imagination, the ability to improvise, to compose in the process of individual and collective playing music. In this work, Orff relied on the connection of music with a gesture, a word, a dance, a pantomime.