Instrumental heterophony in the partit “seven words” by Sofia Gubaidulina
1. The semantic capacity of instrumental heterophony
If the heterophony of Russian polyphonic singing is an act of collective creativity with its own intonation and sonor spectrum, then the semantic capacity of instrumental heterophony is determined by the composer, author, individually in relation to the goals and objectives of a particular work. Where the sound “arbitrariness” is written out with notes and indicated by rhythm and time, and therefore it is possible to speak of “arbitrariness” only in its indirect sense. The modern avant-garde, as a rule, does not distinguish heterophony as an act of volitional and psychological, creative in its essence, from various methods of instrumental writing, when sound creation is replaced by “sound inventing.” So the serial technique, like other constructive techniques of instrumental music, coming from purely logical impulses , hardly can be attributed to the means of instrumental heterophony, and it is very important not to forget about this watershed … In our small study we will try to explain this and specifically show l, although, of course, there is no textbook of instrumental heterophony and will not be, just as there is no dictionary of all instrumental techniques of heterophony. The purpose of this analysis is precisely to show how and how heterophonic writing is motivated and implemented.
2. The psychological concept of the essay by Gubaidulina “Seven Words”
Choosing the form of an old partita for music, Sofia Asgatovna sets the composition to a single style, combining the principles of variation and suite in one, where the seven parts of the cycle are combined by combinations of three tones and the method of free variation, sometimes turning into a cross-cutting development. All works are also united by iconic clips, leitmotifs, leitintonations, and even repeated combinations of instrumental communication.
The “plot” of the seven words of Christ before the execution already attracted more than one composer, and Schutz Gubaidulin even “borrowed” the motive of the cross. But if the composers of the 18th century took the method of “literary description” as the basis, then Gubaidulina’s it is, first of all, a psychological drama, which portrays the inner state of Christ, which is revealed in his dying words. So, the word becomes a synonym for drama and determines the intensity of internal tension, each time in its own way and nowhere repeated. This unique historical situation has determined fate
of the whole world, for every word spoken by Christ is an image of His foreknowledge, His
forebodings, His planetary volume. A dramatic conflict develops not in a traditional step-by-step climb to a climax, but rather in a circular movement, where each section is self-sufficient and psychologically saturated to the extent defined by the word.
3. Timbre differentiation according to the book of Valentina Kholopova
“Step of the soul” (monographic study)
Three timbres – cello, button accordion, string orchestra – are endowed with their psychological functions: cello – the image of the sacrifice God the Son; button accordion – God the Father; string orchestra – the Holy Spirit. The score uses all the options for connecting three timbres from solo to tutti. The main and main action is taken by the cello, the part of which is replete with many receptions of heterophonic writing in its entire volume – from the “To” large octave to the highest flagolets. No less burden is on the button accordion, who constantly “hears” the Son, strengthens and empathizes with Him. The virtuoso part of the button accordion also, at its core, is built on heterophony and is subject only to the most skilled performer. The string orchestra – the personification of the Holy Spirit – sounds most often by the whole composition in various registers and in various combinations. Psychologically, the Comforter, constantly present at all the vicissitudes of execution, is an equal participant in the action. All together – this is a unique technique of the musical combination of all the personalities of the Holy Trinity.
4. Chromatic and diatonic
According to the unique design, musical matter is distinguished by a number of so-called new approaches, new hearing, a new interpretation of sound, the combination of the recognizable (earthly) and sacred (Heavenly). Macrochromatic is opposed to microchromatic, non-temperament to diatonic. Crossing all these layers, Gubaidulina creates for each specific situation a corresponding musical “flora”, where there are internal signs and patterns. So, the chromatized texture is more characteristic of the sensation of earthly martyrdom, expression, suffering. Diatonic, as a symbol of eternity, embodies the images of the unearthly, Heavenly. The intersection of “earthly” chromaticity and “Heavenly” diatonicism (according to V. Kholopova) is understood as a cross, as a motive for the cross, and the choirs of string flagolets represent the breath of the Holy Spirit. Of course, in such an interpretation there is a lot of conventionality and ambiguity, but the logic of transformation of the audible layers is impeccable, perceptible and not accidental.