A little bit about the musical education of children
Dear, dear colleagues! I dare to publish this small article only because at every point I can refer to authorities. And yet – I think that it can help beginner educators. Children come to a music school to learn how to play an instrument, and they want to play, because they are attracted to music and self-expression in it. The development of the instrument and the development of musicality go together, but here I want to talk specifically about musicality, about what helps its development. Not all children are equally musical, but, according to psychologists, there is no such ability that could not be developed. Add: if you do this (which we do). When we begin to get acquainted with a play with a student, we try to cause him to associate with a performance, memory, visual picture. Visual ability in children is most developed. The main thing is to evoke an emotional feeling in them (although almost all teachers do this, but it needs to be said), to determine the nature of the music. This is about the overall impression of the play. But in order to play meaningfully, you need to understand that music is the same language as spoken, like the language of painting, dance, facial expressions, and the language is very rich. And it also consists of words, only musical, as well as phrases. So you can read and hear the whole story in this way. In musical words, as well as in colloquial words, there are also stressed syllables (it is better to call them main). Words form phrases, and phrases form a story. For children to understand, you need to choose the appropriate spoken word for the musical word, where the stressed syllable will be in the same place (strong beat), and then pronounce it, sing, and after that consider and comprehend the phrase, feel its emotional content, the climax movement . It helps if you sing all these phrases or even the whole play as vocalization (which is better), or with the name of the notes (which is more difficult for children because the names of the notes distract from the melody itself) – as if it were a song with interesting, informative words. But treat these names as any language, as part of a word. The emotional feeling of music will be brighter, the music is clearer, the student will become more interesting to play. Yes, and again: it is best to sing, helping yourself with your hand, that is, “conducting” it with a pulsating movement (this is about rhythm). Cellist and prominent theorist B.M. Teplov singled out three main components of musical abilities. This is the mode (listening mode), the internal hearing (i.e., the ability to present, memory) and rhythm (more precisely, a sense of rhythm). And his main statement is: “Musicality is always emotional.” Not all students who come to us have accurate pitch. But we remember that hearing develops, like any ability (we recall what psychologists said about the development of abilities). When a student plays fake, I immediately want to play the piano with him, correcting his intonation. But the rumor doesn’t improve from this! It is necessary for the student to hear himself in the LADY STRUCTURE, to feel harmony in the combination of sounds, colors. This is the main thing! All musical words are associated with a feeling of harmony. Another component of musicality is the rhythm, the most ambiguous and difficult to educate ability. It happens that nature deprives a person. But one must not despair in these cases, but be engaged. First of all, we must remember that the rhythm has nothing to do with the meter. Rhythm is a living element, like sea surf, heartbeat, etc. Rhythm is also closely related to emotional experience. The great pianists, such as G.G. Neuhaus, H. von Bullov and others, spoke and wrote about this a lot and perfectly. How to distinguish one from the other? Of course, the student must have a good understanding of the difference in duration. When you get acquainted with the musical text, you should calculate everything. But playing further, playing – is it worth it to count? After all, it kills the lively sensation of music. Moreover, not all homogeneous lobes (for example, quarters) on the iron bar last exactly the same – strong (shock) last a little longer. The brightest part of a phrase can also take longer. The feeling of expressiveness of the interval is associated with some of its “expansion”, etc. It will help to feel the living rhythm, if with a pulsating motion of the hand to lead a melody in the space of the living rhythm, to sing, helping yourself with your hand. And all changes in tempo, that is, deceleration and acceleration, should be well felt, not forgetting the initial tempo, feeling the integrity of the play. Of course, we have to do a lot of painstaking work. But what can you do? The main thing is why we are engaged in this difficult work. We open the world of music to children, we can see and hear their growth. To all my colleagues, I wish patience, pleasure from work, despite all the sorrows, difficulties and fatigue, and the joy of seeing and hearing the wonderful results of my work.