In Russian, the words “forte” and “piano” are translated as “loudly” and “quietly.”
Originally used the name “pianoforte”. In the clavier of the XIX — XX centuries. (in music practice we use the word “clavier” as notes for piano and transcriptions of instrumental and orchestral pieces for piano performance) we can see to the left of the first piano line the word piano, which is a derivative of the original word pianoforte.
The origin of the piano instrument
Piano predecessors: harpsichord and its varieties
Harpsichord (from French clavecin; Italian. Cembalo, clavicembalo; English harpsichord; ancient name – “clavichord”, from Latin clavis – “key”; for the first time the clavichord is mentioned in documents of the XIV century) was mainly used in musical practice in the XVI —XVIII centuries. This is a keyboard stringed musical instrument with a plucked way of sound production. A musician who performs works on the harpsichord and its varieties is called a harpsichord player.
In the XVII — XVIII centuries. To give the harpsichord a dynamically more diverse sound, instruments were made with two or even three manual manuals (the keyboard is called the harpsichord keyboard), and the upper manual was tuned an octave higher. Also, they could have register switches (as in the third picture of illustration No. 1) for expanding treble, octave doubling of basses and changing timbre coloring (lute register, bassoon register, etc.)
The keys of the clavichord were located across the strings, one string was intended for each string. The clavichord was very expressive, but had a drawback – weak sound.
Spinet (from Italian spina – “spine”) – a small home keyboard string musical instrument, a kind of harpsichord. It has one manual and one row of strings. Unlike other harpsichord varieties, spinet strings are pulled diagonally from left to right.
Muselard and Virginel
Muselar (Dutch: muselaar) is a small table-shaped Flemish keyboard musical instrument, a kind of virginel. It has one set of strings and one manual (keyboard), shifted, in contrast to the virginel, to the right of the center.
Virginel (English virginal, from virgin – “maiden”, “young lady”) – a keyboard string musical instrument, a kind of harpsichord. Gained distribution in England in the XVI-XVII centuries.
Virginiel has one set of strings and one manual. Unlike Muselard, the manual on the virginel is shifted to the left of the center. In England until the XVII century. the word virginal (also plural virginals) called any keyboard instruments equipped with strings (including harpsichord). In modern terminology, a vaginel is an instrument with strings perpendicular to the keys (as opposed to the harpsichord and spinet).
Claviciterium (late Lat. Clavicytherium) – harpsichord with a vertically located body.
In the second half of the 18th century, the harpsichord began to supplant the piano – a more advanced instrument that can be played by changing the strength of the sound. This is due to the invention of hammer technology. This instrument got its name from the words piano e forte (“weak and strong”), therefore most of the names in modern languages of the world have the root “piano”.
By the way, many translators still have not caught the difference between the words “piano” and “piano” (most countries use the word “piano” for both the piano and the piano). And very often, when we watch a movie, we hear such a strange phrase for a Russian musician:
“He plays the piano,” seeing on the screen a man sitting at the piano.
The fact is that only in the Russian language, instead of the word “piano” (that is, “piano forte”, it is also “piano”), is the French word “piano” (“royal”) newly formed in the 19th century. In Russian, we distinguish between a piano and a piano as concert and home instruments. The common (specific) word for them is piano. Non-professionals often use the word “piano” for the name of the piano, or, conversely, the piano. Such a confusion arose in the Russian language because of the “piano” neologism borrowed at one time. See an article on this topic on the Internet: http://riemann_music_dictionary.academic.ru/518/Фfortepiano.
There have repeatedly been disputes about who owns the leadership in the invention of the technique that is used, by and large, in modern keyboards (string-keyboards and percussion) instruments called “pianos”.
The first inventor is Bartolomeo Cristofori, an instrumental master from Florence. In the years 1700-1711. he manufactured three instruments, in the Medici historical documents called arpicembalo. Cristofory’s mechanisms have all the essential components of the mechanism of modern pianos and pianos: leather-covered hammers on a special bar, rehearsal (bouncing hammers with a spring that quickly returns the hammer after hitting it to its original place) and special dampers (silencers) for each key.