Musical memory and its development
In pedagogical practice, quite often questions arise related to the memorization of a musical work and its performance from memory. Some students have a tenacious, strong memory; others grasping “on the fly” remember the work inaccurately, superficially; the third is difficult to remember. In the process of working with some students, it is sometimes difficult to correct an incorrectly memorized phrase, fingering, and reception. And in the future, it would seem that the goal was achieved, but during the performance the student unexpectedly “remembers” an early, incorrectly memorized version. What is the reason for this phenomenon?
A number of other practical questions arise, for example, how best to work on a work: to memorize it immediately as a memory, or to work on it with notes until it itself “fights” into the fingers.
It turns out that in order to manage the process of memorization, activate it as much as possible, reasonably handle the student’s memory, the teacher needs to have an idea of the types and types of memory, its nature [1, p. 68].
A good musical memory is the quick memorization of a musical work, its durable preservation and the most accurate reproduction even after a long period after learning [2, p. 183].
Such a concept as the quality of musical memory is determined not only by the speed and accuracy of memorization of musical material, but also by the duration of its preservation in consciousness, but also by the size of the memory itself.
The amount of memory is characterized by:
1) the number of essays simultaneously preserved in consciousness for some time;
2) the length of the work, after a single perception of it.
The expansion of the memory volume along the line of increasing the number of compositions that are simultaneously stored for some time occurs in the process of working both on the speed and accuracy of their memorization, and on increasing the shelf life in consciousness.
It is extremely important to create conditions for the accumulation of a stock of musical impressions, the volume of the repertoire, and the experience of various musical activities. The process that mediates this accumulation and use of musical material in various activities is musical memory. Musicians and teachers attach great importance to musical memory in the musical complex of a student and diagnose the level of its development in acceptance tests in educational institutions [4, p. 148].
In order to help students learn how to quickly and easily memorize musical works, tasks have been developed aimed at developing the speed of memorizing musical material, accuracy of reproduction, durability of storage, expansion of the volume of musical memory. When developing the tasks, the methods proposed by I.Goffman, V.I. Mutsmacher, S.I. Savshinsky, L. Mackinon,
Tasks for developing the speed (speed) of memorizing musical material.
1. The student is offered a simple melody. He carefully plays it from the sheet, then the teacher removes the notes of the melody.
• play this melody from memory,
• play this melody an octave higher,
• play this melody from another sound.
2. The teacher performs a song familiar to the student on the instrument with singing. The student is listening carefully. The teacher offers to complete a number of tasks for mastering the rhythmic structure:
• tap the rhythmic pattern of the melody;
• reproduce the rhythmic pattern by phrases: the teacher taps – the first phrase, the student – the second phrase, the teacher – the third phrase, the teacher – the fourth phrase;
• reproduce the rhythmic pattern as follows: the first phrase the student taps on the table, the second phrase “to himself”, the third phrase on the table, the fourth phrase “to himself”.
3. The student listens carefully to the melody that the teacher performs. The teacher offers to complete a series of tasks aimed at the speed of memorization.
• determine the number of measures;
• sing repeating melodic elements;
• determine the direction of the melody;
• sing the beginning and end of the melody;
• complete the melody.
4. The student is invited to visually study and play a melody consisting of 4 measures. The teacher offers to complete a number of tasks on the speed of memorization:
• sing a melody from memory;
• from 5 suggested melodies written on cards, select a musical image of the melody heard;
• play the melody you heard on the instrument.
5. The student carefully listens to a simple melody. The teacher offers to complete a number of tasks.
• play a melody from the sheet.
• The teacher plays three melodies, among which the melody that was offered to the student. (The student’s task is to recognize the melody.)
• The teacher taps the rhythm of four melodies, among which is the melody that was offered to the student. (The student’s task is to learn the melody from the rhythmic pattern.)
6. The teacher offers to complete a series of tasks aimed at memorizing speed using the photographing method.