Methodological issues of studying scales and studies in piano lessons
Work on scales and arpeggios should begin from the first year of study, as soon as the student has mastered the basics of staging and sound production. When learning scales and arpeggios, the student should get acquainted with elementary theoretical information about the structure of major and minor scales, for this it is recommended to familiarize him with the conditional tone scheme of the fifth circle.It is recommended to study scales, starting with the major; play them at a slow pace within the mastered range. After the student has mastered several major scales, you can begin to study parallel scales. In the study of new keys, it is necessary to repeat the previously studied scales, each time you repeat, you need to set a new task, first of all – the formation of performing techniques. Every day, the student must work on one – two, sometimes several scales and corresponding arpeggios.
Methods of performing scales depend on the individual characteristics of the student. With any method of performing scales and arpeggios, they should be played with strokes of staccato and legato, with various rhythmic groups.
There should not be a gap in the work on scales between the artistic and technical tasks. It is necessary for the student to realize that, depending on the character, various and pianistic movements sound, that the sound quality is associated with the corresponding movement of the body, arm, and club. The student should gradually develop an automatic connection between the desired sound and pianistic movement.
Various methods of working on scales increase students’ interest in their game.
The main task when working on scales is to improve the quality of workmanship. The tempo is taken in which everything is tapped and obtained.
When we begin to introduce students to scales, we introduce them to the world of keys, explaining their artistic meaning.
It is necessary to constantly monitor the freedom of the pianistic apparatus, to prevent all kinds of tightness and constraint.
Technical training is aimed at the convenience and freedom of movement of the motor apparatus.
Often when playing scales, one has to deal with the so-called shaking. To avoid this, mastering the practice of legato in my students is gradual, starting with two notes with a further addition. So we get to the five finger position. The main technical requirements for the legato game are as follows: immersing the weight of the entire arm from the shoulder through the finger into the key (contact with the keyboard. Pressing the finger into the key occurs without a push, followed by a smooth transition of the finger on the finger (weight transfer) The brush moves behind the sound. make sure that non-playing fingers do not strain, do not protrude, and move after playing. The brush should be collected all the time. Thus, the brush and forearm when playing sounds of the same gamma position make an auxiliary combination yayuschee movement.
When playing preliminary exercises for the gamut, it is necessary to set artistic tasks in addition to technical tasks. Even in a short motive, you need to listen to the dynamic orientation of crescendo to the last sound, lead the sound to a climax, intonate the motive.
The first finger should be the support of the entire brush. When playing scales, you need to follow the first finger, when changing positions, listen to the evenness of the sound of the scale.
It is convenient to start mastering scales with two hands with E major.
For the successful upbringing of the pianist’s technique, it is necessary that during his training there should be studies and plays in his repertoire, including various types of technique, various textures, requiring various types of movements of both the right and left hands. To do this, you should learn a lot of studies on different types of technology. Some need to be brought to possible perfection, playing as a keepsake, with shades, others pass along the way, for a wider familiarization. Do not forget the studies for the left hand.
The student can himself find a technique that will lead to the need
Cherni closely associated work on the scales with sound and articulation tasks. He recommended learning the scales pp, p, mf, f, up – crescendo, down – diminuendo; advised to use also different types of ink, accents.
Czerny carefully developed the technique of mastering gamma. His preparatory exercises for gamma are very diverse. From simple to complex – this principle lay not only at the heart of all of Cherny’s sketchy opuses, but also his system of educating the pianist technique.
It is useful to play scales in various rhythmic variations. Such a game of scales especially contributes to the evenness of sound and is very useful to students who have a sense of rhythm.