Methodological aspects of the work of a accompanist in a vocal class
In the modern musical world, the work of an accompanist very often fades into the background, but meanwhile, it is no less important than the work of a teacher. Often the role of the pianist is to some extent even more responsible: in addition to several stages of learning the work that the accompanist takes with the student, he performs with him on stage in the ensemble. The success of this ensemble, this performance, in many respects depends on his level of skill. It turns out that the accompanist combines the roles of a teacher, creator, and sometimes a psychologist.
The horizons of such a pianist should be comprehensive. He needs to have a lot of knowledge:
1. Complete a large number of works, accumulate a repertoire that is diverse in content and styles. To know and understand the various genres, their specifics, in order to be able to accurately convey the style and range of images of the work.
2. To master the skill of capturing the gaze of all three lines at once (two lines of his part and the line of the vocalist), paying special attention to the vocal line. To be able to read an ensemble work from a sheet, cover it in its entirety and immerse yourself in the content recorded in notes.
3. To be able to play a vocal line together with accompaniment, highlighting it against the background of texture.
4. To be able to immediately add harmony and accompaniment to the melody in a simple texture, to be able to improvise in the style of a composer on a given topic.
5. To be able to transpose the work into tonality for any interval up to a quart. This skill is especially important when a vocalist, for various reasons (illness, very strong excitement, lack of notes in the right key), cannot perform a piece in the key planned by the accompanist before.
6. To be a sensitive partner in the ensemble: to support, in technically difficult places to be able to adapt to the soloist, to expand the musical fabric in time. To be able to respond quickly: in case the vocalist forgot the text, tell him if he lost, help enter, if he made a mistake and moved to the wrong place, quietly pick up the musical text and play on.
7. To know and be able to show the vocalist the main conducting gestures and techniques, such as aufact, deceleration, acceleration, the “grid” of the main sizes: 2 / 4.3 / 4.4 / 4 and 6/8.
8. Know the basics and basics of vocal art. Have an idea of the technique of voice, the concepts of “breathing”, “articulation”, “semantic emphasis”, “nuance”.
9. Be delicate in your wishes and comments to the vocalist. In those places where it is necessary, compensate or slow down the pace, set the mood, the nature of the work. It is also important to be able to quietly and quietly play his vocalist tune.
The work of the accompanist can be divided into several main stages:
1. Independent work on the work.
2. Work on the work in the classroom with a teacher and student-vocalist.
3. Work on the work in the classroom only with the student.
4. The performance of the work on stage with the student.
The process of independent work of the accompanist on a piece is also divided into several stages:
1. Familiarization with the text of the work. Reading the vocalist’s lyrics from beginning to end is like a story. If necessary, translate the text into the native language.
2. Visual reading of the musical text and an attempt at its auditory presentation (according to the method of K. Leimer – V. Gieseking).
3. The initial analysis of the work, playing it in its entirety without stops along with the vocal line. The objectives of this stage: familiarization with the work, identifying the nature of music, the main difficulties.
4. Drawing up a performance plan: determining the tempo of a work, creating an artistic image of a musical work, identifying semantic accents, determining a climax.
5. The study of complex episodes, learning the accompaniment part, the soloist part.
An experienced accompanist will surely help the student-vocalist in analyzing new material. To begin with, the accompanist must complete the entire work so that the vocalist can understand its structure, composition, character and drama. From the first acquaintance with the work it depends on what impression the vocalist will have about the work, whether he will like it, whether he will be interested in it. In addition to accompaniment, it is very important to play a vocal melody, to draw the vocalist’s attention to high notes and beautiful melodic moves, and harmonies in the accompaniment.
When a work is selected and approved, parsing begins. For the most successful learning, it is necessary to study and memorize the work by fragments, and so on, gradually enlarging the parts: from motive to phrase, sentence, period, if the couplet structure is to the couplet.